The broad goal of the teaching of undergraduate students in microbiology is to provide and understanding of the natural history of infectious disease in order to deal with the etiology, pathogeneses, laboratory diagnosis , treatment and control of infections in the community and to prepare him to be a teacher of microbiology.
At the end of the course, the student shall be able to:
1. State the infective micro- organisms of the human body and describe the host parasite relationship;
2. List pathogenic micro-organisms (bacteria, viruses,parasites fungi) and describe the pathogenesis of the diseases produce by them;
3. Indicate the modes of transmission of pathogenic and opportunistic organism and their sources, including insect vectors responsible for transmission of infection;
4. Describe the mechanisms of immunity to infections;
5. Acquire knowledge on suitable antimicrobial agents for treatment of infections and scope of immunotherapy and different vaccines available for prevention of communicable disease;
6. Apply methods of disinfection and sterilization to control and prevent hospital and community acquire infections;
7. Recommend laboratory investigations regarding bacteriological examination of food water milk and air.
At the end of the course the student shall be able to
1. Plan and interpret laboratory investigations for the diagnosis of infections disease of infections disease and to correlate the clinical manifestations with the etiological agent;
2. Identify the common infectious agents with the help of laboratory procedures and use antimicrobial sensitivity tests to select suitable antimicrobial agents;
3. Perform commonly employed bed-side tests for detection of in infectious agents such as blood film for filarial, gram staining and Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) staining and stool sample for ova cyst etc.
4. Use the correct method of collection storage and transport of clinical material for microbiological investigations.
The student shall understand infectious diseases of national importance relation to the clinical therapeutic and preventive aspects.
i) General microbiology
1. Microbiology and medicine
2. Morphology and a structure of bacteria
3. Growth and nutrition of bacteria
4. Classification and identification of microorganisms with special reference to bacteria
5. Sterilization and disinfections.
6. Antimicrobial agents: mode of action against bacteria
7. Bacterial genetics
8. Bacterial pathogenicity: source and spread of infection in the community immunological principles antigens antibodies and antigen antibody reaction
9. Natural and acquired immunity
10. Viruses structure composition classification
11. Virus cell interactions virus genetics antiviral agents
12. Virus infections pathogenesis immunity laboratory diagnosis.
ii) Systemic microbiology
- Mycobacterium tuberculosis
- Atypical mycobacteria & mycobacterium leprae
- Actinomycetes: nocardea
- Eschericha coli, klebsiella, proteus
- Vibrio: sprillum
- Antrax bacillus
- Yersinia: pasteurella prancisella
- Bacteriodes- fusobacterium group and leptorichia
- Chlostridium: 1. Cl. Welchii
- Clostridium:2. Cl. Tetani, cl. Botulinum others
- Treponema: borrelia
- Orthomyzoviruses (influenza viruses types A,B and C)
- a.Paramyzoviruses & other
b.Rubella, Corona, RNA viruses
- Hepatitis viruses
- Slow and Oncogenic viruses HIV & AIDS
- Pathogenic fungi
01. General consideration regarding nomenclature and host parasite relationship.
02. Morphological identification, mode of infection life cycle pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of disease produced by these parasite in men, e.g. protozoa including Rhisopoda. Sporozoa, Mastigophora and Ciliate, Helminths including Nematodes Cystodes and trematodes.
03.Medical entomology: arthropods transmitting infection to man, e.g. housefly , louse, sandfly, tetsefly mosquitoes, fieas, ticks and mites, snails, cyolops, etc., with reference to theire identity and diseases transmitted by them.
Practicals and demonstration in bacteriology and Parasitology to cover the above subjects with special with emphasis on common loboratory techniques.
CURRICULUM FOR M.D
- History of microbiology, including development in last 25 years & progress in molecular biology.
- Morphology of bacteria with emphasis on functional aspect of each part. Discussion on site of action of different anti microbials
- Physiology - Growth & multiplication of bacteria including growth curve, nutritional requirement & other environmental factors like PH, O2, temperature etc.
- Sterilization & disinfection with special emphasis on recently available disinfectant, control of sterilization, organization of C.S.S.D.
- Culture media – preparation of common media & importance of special media for fastidious organisms. Anarobic culture methodologies for anarobes.
- Identification of bacteria – Systemic plan for identification of bacteria. Covering morphology, staining reaction, cultural characteristics, resistance to heat & other chemical, biochemical reaction, serological reaction for antigen detection & other relevant test.
- Bacterial genetics – Nucleic acid, plasmid, genotypic & phenotypic variation in bacteria, genetic engineering & practical application like gene probes, PCR etc. in early diagnosis of the microbial infection, drug resistance theories.
- Host & parasitic relationship, infection – Types & emphasis on recently diagnosed infections including opportunistic infections.
- Immunity – Innate & acquired immunity with emphasis on currently available vaccines.
- Antigens, Antibodies, Antigen – Antibody reaction with emphasis on recently available techniques of bloating tests, immunofluorescent test etc.
- Structure & fuction immune system. Complement system.
- Immune response Humoral & cellular immune response with emphasis on role of cytokones.
- Immunodeficiency diseases & Autoimmune diseases with emphasis on opportunistic infection due to HIV epidemic.
- Immunohematology & immunology of transplantation.
- Staphylococcus with emphasis on MRSA in hospital infection.
- Staphylococcus with emphasis on enterococci & streptococcus pneumonia.
- Neisseria meningitides & neisseria gonorrhoea.
- Corynebacteria diphtheria.
- Bacillus – B. Cereus food poisoning as Chinese food getting popular.
- Clostridium perfringence, tetani & defficile.
- Non sporing anaerobes – cocci & bacilli as important pathogens.
- Coliform – E.coli – important pathogens.
- Shigella – plasmid medicated drug resistance transfer.
- Salmonella – drug resistant strains.
- Other important members of this group.
- Hemophilus, Bordetella, Brucella
- Mycobacterium, Tuberculosis, Atypical Mycobacterium with increasing incidence of HIV infection.
- Mycobacterium leprea.
- Spirochetes – Leptospira.
- Miscellaneous bacteria like Listeria monocytogenes, acinobacter calcoaceticus, camphlobacter, H. pylori, legionella pneumophilia & gardanella vaginalis.
- General properties, replication, cultivation, laboratory diagnosis.
- Poxvirus, Herpes virus, Adenovirus, Picorba virus, Myxovirus, Arbovirus, Rhabdovirus, Hepatitis virus, Slowvirus, HIV virus.
- General characters, classification, superficial & deep mycosis & opportunistic fungi.
- Nosocomial infection.
- Hospital waste management.
- Protozoa, Entemiba, Toxoplasma, Sporozoa in immunocompromized host, plasmodia, Leismania, Cestodes, Nematodes & Trematodes. Filaria & Dracanculus infestation & Recently available techniques for diagnosis of parasitic disease.
- Investigation of cases of gastroenteritis, UTI, meningitis, respiratory diseases, STD, PUO, etc. Postoperative outbreak in ophthalmology, surgery, orthopedics. Septicemic & meningitis outbreak in neonatal ward, burns wards.
RECENT ADVANCES IN MICROBIOLOGY
44. recent advances in microbiology & other related topics.